Web application evolved from web sites or web system. The first web sites, created by Tim Bemers-Lee while at CERN (The European Laboratory for Particle Physics), formed a distributed hypermedia system that enable researchers to have access to document and information published by fellow researchers, directly from their computers.
Documents were accessed and viewed with a piece of software called a browser. A software application that runs on a client computer. With a browser, the user can request documents from other computers on the network and render those documents on the user’s display.
This development has led to accelerated availability of educational resources and the position of collaboration across different research and educational institutions.
A significant component of this innovative trend is the adoptive of web-based technology driven assessment of students. It is becoming commonplace to see institutions across the educational strata adopt computer-based tests (CBT) and assessment to admit or screen students for entrance into Nigeria institutions (Abubakar & Adebayo, 2014).
However, this mode of conducting examination is a new phenomenon in Nigeria. The use of CBT for entrance examination in education, military training, and certification examination by professional groups and promotional examinations in various stages and categories of life cannot be overemphasized.
(Abubakar & Adebayo, 2014), noted that CBT has gained popularity as a means of testing with large scale professional examination such as the United State of Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) in 1999. However, the popularity emerged through the post UME and University main examination in Nigeria.
Other institutions such as the University of Ilorin, Federal University of Technology, Akure and Federal University of Technology Minna are maximizing the use of CBT in education as tool for undergraduate and postgraduate assessment.
The inclusion of ICTs in education is required to re-consider and re-think, modify or change the more effective learning by testing a range of skills, knowledge and understanding. Also, accessing and managing of information and developing communication skills are possible to assess online which cannot be assessed in regular essay based examinations computer-based test offers several benefits over traditional paper-and-pencil or paper-based tests.
Technology based assessment provide opportunities to measure complex form of knowledge and reasoning that is not possible to engage and assess through traditional methods in Nigeria, employers now conduct aptitude test for their job seekers through electronic means; the universities and other tertiary institutions are registering and conducting electronic examination for their students through the internet and other electronic and networking gadgets.
Similarly, different examination bodies in the country such as West Africa Examination Council (WAEC), (NECO), National for Technical Education (NABTEB), and National Teachers Institute (NTI) among others register their students through electronic means (Abubkar &Adebayo, 2014).
Computera related technologies provide powerful tools to meet the new challenges of designing and implementing assessments methods that go beyond the conventional practices and facilitate to record a broader repertoire of cognitive skills and in the past, various method was employed in examining the ability of an individual, starting from oral to written, practical to theoretical, and paper and pencil to electronic.
The present ICT means of examining students in Nigeria is the use of electronic system in place of manual or paper method which was characterized by massive examination leakages, impersonations, demand for gratification by teachers, bribe-taking by supervisors and invigilators of examinations (Edwin etal 2004)
ADVANTAGES OF CTB OVER PPT TESTING
- More efficient than pater-based testing
- Flexible scheduling
- Individualized testing environment
- Faster score reporting, within approximately two week of testing
- Immediate viewing of scores on screen
- Convenient to undergraduate, graduates, and the larger university community
- Ability to access all tests that are demanded by students and the community at large
- Worldwide testing opportunities for distance and traveling students
- Local and centralized registration and billing systems. (Abubakar & Adebayo 2014).
Enhanced consistency and security.